什么是宾语从句(宾语从句的分类介绍)

浩唐网络 行业资讯 2021-09-11 15:19 4次
一. 宾语从句的含义 在整个句子中做宾语的从句叫做宾语从句。如:She knew that the teacher had seen the film.她知道这位老师看过这部电影。(“that the teacher had seen the film”做 knew 的宾语,其中the teacher做主语,had seen做谓语,有主有谓是一个句子,由一个句子做宾语,所以它叫做宾语从句。)二. 宾语从句的分类1. 动词宾语从句:顾名思义,它是位于动词后面的宾语从句。例如:He asked whose handwriting was the best in our class.他问我们班上谁的书法最好。2. 介词宾语从句:顾名思义,它是位于介词后面的宾语从句。例如:I agree with what you said just now.我同意你刚才说的话。3. 形容词宾语从句:顾名思义,它是位于形容词后面的宾语从句。例如:I am afraid that I will be late. 恐怕我要迟到了。三. 引导名词性从句的连接词1. that:没有含义,在宾语从句中不做成分。that 在大多数情况下可以省略,但在以下几种情况下不可以省略:①动词后接多于两个由that引导的宾语从句时,第一个that可省,但后面的that不可省。He said (that) you were too young to understand the matter and that he was asked not to tell you.②当主句的谓语动词与that宾语从句之间有插入语时,that一般不可省。Just then I noticed, for the first time, that he prepared to talk to us.③当that从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that不可省I can’t tell him that his mother died.④ 当that置于句首时That our team will win,I believe.2.whether/if:表示是否,在宾语从句中不做成分。I don't know if /whether he still lives here after so many years. 我不知道这么多年后,他是否还住在这里。3.连接代词:what, which, who, whom, whose, whatever(在宾语从句中做主、宾、表和定语)Do you know who has won Red Alert game?你知道是谁赢得了红色警戒的游戏么?The book will show you what the best CEOs should know.这本书会告诉你最好的执行总裁该了解什么.Do whatever you like.你喜欢做什么就做什么。4. 连接副词:where, when, how, why(在宾语从句中做状语)这些小孩子不知道什么在他们的长筒袜里。Could you tell me why you were late for the meeting this morning?(why 在宾语从句中做原因状语)你能告诉我为什么你今天早上开会迟到吗?He didn’t tell me when we should meet again.他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再见面.Could you please tell me how you use the new panel?你能告诉我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗?None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到.四. 在做宾语从句的题目时应注意以下几点:1. 时态①当主句是现在时态时,宾语从句可以根据需要使用任何时态。I don't know when he will come back.我不知道他将何时回来。He tells me that his sister came back yesterday.他告诉我他姐姐昨天回来了。②当主句是过去时态时,宾语从句必须是一种过去的时态。She asked me if I knew whose pen it was.她问我是否知道这是谁的钢笔。He said that he could finish his work before supper.他说他会在晚饭前完成工作。③当表示客观事实或普遍真理的句子做宾语从句时,任何时候都用一般现在时。The teacher said that the earth goes round the sun.老师说过地球绕着太阳转。2. 语序任何从句都使用陈述句语序,宾语从句当然也不例外。I want to know what he has told you. 我想知道他告诉了你什么。3.虚拟语气在demand、order、suggest、decide、insist, desire, request, command, doubt等表示要求、命令、建议、决定等意义的动词后,宾语从句常用“(should)+动词原形”。I insist that she (should) do her work alone. 我坚持要她自己工作。The commander ordered that troops (should) set off at once. 司令员命令部队马上出发。4. 可运用it做形式宾语。①动词make, find ,think,feel,consider,believe等后面有宾语补足语的时候,则需要用it做形式宾语,而将that宾语从句后置,结构:S.+vt+it+adj./n.(宾语补足语)+o(宾语)。I think it necessary that we take plenty of hot water every day.我认为每天多喝开水是有必要的。I feel it a pity that I haven't been to theget-together.我没去聚餐,感觉非常遗憾。②有些动词带宾语从句时需要在宾语与从句前加it,这类动词主要是:hate,take,owe,have,see toI hate it when they talk with their mouths full of food.我讨厌他们满嘴食物时说话。We take it that you will agree with us.我们认为你会同意我们的。He will have it that our plan is really pratical.他认为我们的计划确实可行。5. whether与if 在作“是否”的意思讲时在下列情况下一般只能用whether,不用if:①引导介词宾语时,只能用whether;His father is worried about whether he lose his work.他的父亲担心他是否会失去工作。I am thinking about whether I should quit my present job.我正在考虑我是否应该辞去现 在的工作。Everything depends on whether we have enough money.一切要看我们是否有足够的钱。②宾语从句放在句首表示强调时,只能用whether;Whether this is true or not, I really don't know.这是否真实,我也不知道。③if与whether都可以与or not连用,但后面紧跟着or not时只能用whether;We didn't know whether or not she was ready.我们不知道她是否准备好了。(此时只能用whether)I wonder whether/if the news is true or not.我想知道这个消息是否属实。(此时则二者都可以用)④用if会引起歧义时,只用whether;Could you tell me if you know the answer ?这句话有两种意思:“你能告诉我是否知道答案吗?”或“如果你知道答案,请告诉我,好吗?”。如用whether可避免歧义.6. 关于whatever和no matter whatwhatevet即可以引导宾语从句也可以引导让步状语从句,引导让步状语从句时可以换成no matter what。They eat whatever they can find. 他们找到什么就吃什么。(宾语从句)You can take whatever you like.你喜欢什么就拿什么吧。(宾语从句)Whatever difficulties we meet, we can work them out.无论遇到什么困难,我们都能解决它们。(让步状语从句=no matter what)Don’t lose heart whatever difficulties you meet. 不管遇到什么困难都不要灰心。(让步状语从句=no matter what)>